Study Explores How immune Cells Work Together in Inflammation

Study Explores How immune Cells Work Together in Inflammation

Despite intense research on autoimmune diseases like lupus, little is still known on how the immune system works to attack the patient’s tissues and organs. However, a recent study titled “Neutrophil trails guide influenza specific CD8+ T cells in the airways” and published early this month in the Science journal gives new insights on how immune cells work together towards their goal: destroy malignant cell and infectious agents.

Researchers from the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry looked at the response to flu infection in mice, in the hopes of understanding how immune cells behaved in the face of infection. They used a modern imaging technique called intravital multiphoton microscopy to analyze the behavior of the immune system in flu infected trachea (part of the respiratory system).

The team led by Professor Minsoo Kim found that specific cells called neutrophils are the first responders of the immune system. They belong to the so called innate immune system that normally recognizes generic pathogen signals or helps antibodies or immune cells destroy pathogenic cells. These neutrophil cells arrive at the site of infection within one hour and leave a chemical “trail” for specialized cells called cytotoxic T cells to follow.

Additionally, after removing these first responder cells (neutrophils) or their signals/”trails”, specialized T cells do not find the site of infection as easily as before and the ones that do are not as effective in fighting the infection.

Their results show that immune cells share information and team up to more effectively accomplish their goal of eradicating the infection and that the absence of a member of the team cripples the response to the insult.

Lupus is a is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs when one’s immune system attacks healthy tissue. The specific causes of this behavior are still unknown but it is acknowledged that some drugs like Isoniazid, Hydralazine and Procainamide can induce SLE development. The pathology’s symptoms include joint pain, chest pain, fatigue, fever with no other cause, hair loss, among others.

These results are very encouraging. “In people with autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis and lupus, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. If scientists understood how to disrupt or stop immune cells’ movement to healthy tissue, they may be able to improve the quality of life of people living with these devastating diseases,” the authors explained. The study therefore shows the importance of scientific research, especially regarding clinical trials and clinical studies in humans in these lifelong and severe diseases for a hope of a better therapeutic approach.

Inês Martins holds a BSc in Cell and Molecular Biology from Universidade Nova de Lisboa and is currently finishing her PhD in Biomedical Sciences at Universidade de Lisboa. Her work has been focused on blood vessels and their role in both hematopoiesis and cancer development.
Inês Martins holds a BSc in Cell and Molecular Biology from Universidade Nova de Lisboa and is currently finishing her PhD in Biomedical Sciences at Universidade de Lisboa. Her work has been focused on blood vessels and their role in both hematopoiesis and cancer development.


  1. Ray says:

    My daughter, 35 years old and a mother of two small children aged 6 and 7, has battled with Lupus now for over five years. Recently over the last two weeks it has seriously affected the sight in her left eye and this is being treated with high levels of steroids drops plus other medications. To date no improvement is showing. Is stem cell treatment at a safe level to treat lupus and if so what is the best country in the world where this treatment is available. I am becoming desperate for her future and also her children. Thank you any help or advice you can give me would be wholeheartedly appreciated. Ray

    • Tim Bossie says:

      Stem cell treatment has been proven to work with other types of rare and chronic illnesses. However, there are always risks. I am not aware of any viable stem cell treatments for Lupus right now. It is something that is being studied. We hope all the best for your daughter and her family.

    • dc says:

      Ray, there is a group of doctors in Houston,TX at the Texas Medical Center who are developing stem cell treatment and from what I hear, FDA is trying to “fast track” this treatment. They have an office in the Med Center and also one in Pearland, TX which is a suburb. All tests, etc. are done here but at present the stem cell treatment itself is being done in Guadalahara, MX. I think their Group is called Texas Stemcell Research or maybe Cell-Tex. I also am a lupus patient with a half dozen other AI diseases. Don’t know if I would be a candidate or not but if the lupus becomes actively attacking my heart again or were to start affecting my kidneys, I would not hesitate to look this group up and see if I was eligible. I also have had 3 years of Benlysta which is presently the only infusion med directly for lupus and supposed to give added protection for the organs. Blessings in you search.

  2. Susan Ahrent says:

    I have found the same results as Tim mentioned above. What is so very important for your Daughter, is that she get monitored and treated by the very best Rheumatology department close to you and within a distance you can handle. For serious complications; many find it helpful to be seen and followed by a University based physician group in your travel area. For me personally, I was dx’d around the same age and had two children of similar ages. So I understand her struggle to manage her life and disease. My local physicians treated me for a time but when I began having more and more serious complications… they referred me to a Rheumatology group that was based at the Medical School/Hospital System 125 miles away. It seemed so far at first… traveling there while crying out with an attack of Pancreatitis was brutal. However, they were able to get a handle on my system and then offered me the latest and best medications and a team of Physicians who all worked together (and they actually talked to one another LOL) and really saved my life and made my future a possibility. Because of this; I can recommend that you press on and ask to be referred to a University/Medical School based treatment TEAM if one is within the travel distance you are able to handle. Don’t back down and fight hard for the best TEAM you can find if you feel that current treatments for her are just not working as well as you desire. She must do her part as well… changing her daily schedule, making allowances for her fatigue levels which always vary, changing her diet to a nutrient dense one and getting that afternoon nap is something most find essential. Not over extending herself; even when there are children at home is so very important. For many, it takes a while to change their normal way of doing things and to give themselves permission to rest no mater what. It’s a change of priorities. I am willing to assist you in any way I can. There are many here who can answer questions you may have or at least point you to where the answers can be found. It is a TEAM effort… Home, Family, Community, Work, Physicians/Specialists… and the patient with the illness. That is her TEAM and it’s so important to shore up every link. Big L”…. as I fondly refer to Lupus… is a long, steady hike thru ever changing terrain. Be flexible, have a willingness to ask when you need help, and always allow yourself to rest on the bad days. You’ve already given her an edge in fighting this disease… yourself… and how much you care and are obviously willing to join with her in this life-long battle. Remember… it CAN get better! ???? Your love and support will carry her when her own body no longer can. She is truly blessed to have you on her TEAM!????????????

  3. Ruby Flores says:

    Hello I have Lupus for about 7 years and I have been trying to manage my life. Its been so hard.
    I have a question my Rheumatology want me to do a Chemo treatment Rituxan and I am scared. I have to make a decision if I should do this treatment. Has some of your patient tried this treatment and I see there is a lot of side effects. Every time the Doctor give me a new medication, I have side effects from the medication and trying to deal with my lupus double my pain. I am so tired

    • dc says:

      Ruby, has your Rheumatologist discussed Benlysta with you ? This is the only infusion directly developed for Lupus and has had good results in giving the organs added protection from lupus attack. My WC went down from 30K to just above normal and I, personally had no side effects, maybe a little more fatigue and how can you measure that if the fatigue is already debilitating ?? I also have a lot of joint inflammation just like RA, but I would ask the Rheumy is considering Rituxan. I certain he has his reasons but I would want to know the why and also about the Benlysta. Methodrexate has helped a lot of lupus patients, and RA with joint inflammation but did nothing for me except make me more tired, nauseous , and my hair thin. !! I had to go through several drug protocols before my insurance would pay for the infusions! blessings, dc

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